I previously wrote about a Supreme Court case pitting the United States Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO”) and Section 2(a) of the Lanham Act against the First Amendment, the Federal Circuit, the Slants and, lurking in the wings, the Washington Redskins.
The USPTO filed its 92 page opening brief this week, repeating many of the same arguments rejected by the Federal Circuit.
Argument 1: Trademark Registration is a Privilege, Not a Right
The USPTO argues that “Section 1052(a) does not prohibit any speech but simply defines the criteria for participation in the government’s voluntary trademark program.” Citing the government’s right not to fund certain types of art or to disallow certain symbols on license plates, the USPTO argues “[t]he First Amendment does not require the federal government to assist those, who wish to sell products or services using racial slurs, religious insults or other disparaging marks.”
Argument 2: Banning Disparaging Marks Does Not Restrict Speech
The USPTO describes the history of the Lanham Act and the common-law rights a trademark owner holds even if he or she lacks federal trademark registration. The USPTO argues that “Section 1052(a) limits the marks that may be federally registered, but it does not restrict the mark holder’s ability to use its mark or to engage in any other speech.”
Argument 3: Section 1052(a)’s Ban On Disparaging Marks is Consistent with Other Constitutional Restrictions
Citing the government’s right not to participate where “government assistance will closely associate the government with offensive terminology,” the USPTO analogized to artists who have been denied federal arts funding, or proponents of specialty state license plates including the confederate flag. “Registration of THE SLANTS would cause the mark to be published on the Principal Register; would cause a certificate for the mark to be issued ‘in the name of the United States’ (which may be transmitted to foreign countries); and would entitle respondent to use the ® symbol to convey to the public that the mark has official status.”
Where Did the Washington Redskins Go?
The Washington Redskins asked the Supreme Court to join The Slants in opposing the USPTO, but the Supreme Court refused. The team’s case before the Fourth Circuit is stayed pending the outcome of the USPTO-The Slants decision.
The Slants will be filing their brief, along with a likely flood of amicus curiae briefs on either side, and then the matter will be heard by eight justices, unless a ninth supreme court justice is confirmed before oral argument.